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ЭЛЕКТРОННОЕ НАУЧНОЕ ИЗДАНИЕ
АЛЬМАНАХ ПРОСТРАНСТВО И ВРЕМЯ
[Elektronnoe nauchnoe izdanie Al'manakh Prostranstvo i Vremya]

Electronic Scientific Edition
Almanac Space and Time
[E-Almanac Space and Time]

Часть издательского проекта “Пространство и Время” 
The part of the "Spac and Time" Рublishing Рroject
 
УСПЕХИ МОЛОДЫХ ИССЛЕДОВАТЕЛЕЙ:
МОЛОДЁЖНЫЙ ПРОЕКТ ДЛЯ ТЕХ, КТО ДЕЛАЕТ ПЕРВЫЕ ШАГИ В НАУКЕ

ПРЕСС-РЕЛИЗ совместного проектаФилософского факультета МГУ имени М.В. Ломоносова,Московского общества испытателей природы при МГУ имени М.В. Ломоносова,Федерального государственного бюджетного научного учреждения«Институт стратегии развития образования Российской академии образования»и «Электронного научного издания Альманах Пространство и Время»в рамках подготовки и проведенияXIX Всемирного фестиваля молодежи и студентов в РоссииФедерального государственного бюджетного научного учреждения  «Институт стратегии развития образования Российской академии образования», Российского университета дружбы народов, Московского общества испытателей природы при МГУ имени М.В. Ломоносова и «Электронного научного издания Альманах Пространство и Время»  в рамках подготовки и проведения  XIX Всемирного фестиваля молодежи и студентов в России
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ПРОСТРАНСТВА РОССИИ / SPACES OF RUSSIA / RUSSISCHEN RAUMFAHRT

»   2018. Том 16. Выпуск 1-2

DOI 10.24411/2227-9490-2018-11061

Корнилов С.В. 
Философская школа Московской духовной академии: В.Д. Кудрявцев-Платонов

Корнилов Сергей Владимирович, доктор философских наук, профессор, профессор кафедры философии Балтийского федерального университета им. И.Канта (Калининград)
ORCID ID http://orcid.org/0000-0003-3239-1002
E-mail: sergey-v-kornilov@j-spacetime.com; korns2009@rambler.ru

Статья посвящена жизни и творческой биографии выдающегося русского мыслителя В.Д.Кудрявцева-Платонова, прежде всего разработанному им философскому учению — трансцендентальному монизму. Последний рассматривается в широком контексте западноевропейской философии и, одновременно, как наиболее полное выражение основных достижений философской школы Московской Духовной Академии.

Ключевые слова: русская философия; философская школа Московской Духовной Академии; теизм; метафизика; онтология; гносеология; душа; трансцендентальный монизм.

Цитирование по ГОСТ Р 7.0.11—2011:

Корнилов, С. В. Философская школа Московской Духовной Академии: В.Д.Кудрявцев-Платонов [Электронный ресурс] / С.В. Корнилов // Электронное научное издание Альманах Пространство и Время. — 2018. — Т. 16. — Вып. 1—2. — Стационарный сетевой адрес: 2227-9490e-aprovr_e-ast16-1_2.2018.61. DOI 10.24411/2227-9490-2018-11061.




DOI 10.24411/2227-9490-2018-11061

Kornilov S.V. Philosophical School of the Moscow Ecclesiastical Academy: Viktor Kudryavtsev-Platonov

Sergey V. Kornilov, D.Phil., Professor, Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University (Kaliningrad)
ORCID ID  http://orcid.org/0000-0003-3239-1002
E-mail: sergey-v-kornilov@j-spacetime.com; korns2009@rambler.ru

The philosophical school of the Moscow Ecclesiastical Academy was not studied in the Soviet period, and the philosophy of its several representatives became the subject of research only since the 2000s. Meanwhile, there is such a major representative of Ecclesiastical-academic philosophical thought as outstanding Russian thinker Viktor Kudryavtsev-Platonov among such recently researchers ‘discovered’ by historians of philosophy.

In this article, using general and historical philosophical approaches, source and textual analysis, I attempt to study research biography of Viktor Kudryavtsev-Platonov and his main philosophical and theological ideas both in the wider European philosophical context and in the shadow of tradition of philosophical school of the Moscow Ecclesiastical Academy.

Thus, in Kudryavtsev-Platonov’s doctrine, a rethinking of the nature and tasks of philosophical thinking itself took place, since by the middle of the last century the status of philosophy had been shaken as never before. Of course, throughout the historical path of its development, the attitude toward it has changed more than once; it has undergone various transformations and has experienced more than one crisis. However, when the grandiose idealistic systems of Hegel and Schelling representing the pinnacles of speculative thought were debunked, philosophy seemed to have exhausted itself. Emerging on the ruins of the former philosophical systems, empiricism struck with the paucity of its thinking, trying to answer eternal questions from the point of view of narrow-thinking common sense. However, it is symptomatic that scientific thought itself fixed something that went beyond the scope of science, resulting in agnosticism of Thomas Henry Huxley and Emil du Bois-Reymond. These issues are closely related to the categories of ‘truth’ and ‘idea.’ Kudryavtsev-Platonov believed that the ‘idea’ is characterized by the following features: (i) it has reality (and not a purely subjective phenomenon); (ii) it is a concept (norm); (iii) it is unchanged principle; (iv) it is the goal of development. The realness of ‘idea’ lies in the fact that although it had never done completely in reality, it is a necessary condition of existence of objects. The idea acts as a concept, in other words, has a formal normative concept.

The development of the philosophical system must be preceded by the theory of knowledge, which, through the analysis of cognitive possibilities, will allow us to assess the boundaries of knowledge. So, Kudryavtsev-Platonov builds an entire philosophical system based on the epistemological approach in the interest of both actual philosophizing, and teaching of philosophy as an academic discipline. He shows, that problem of cognition method is closely connected with the understanding of structure of philosophical knowledge. It should include three main blocks of disciplines: (i) basic science, (ii) composite sciences and (iii) applied ones. The first block includes logic, experienced psychology and the history of philosophy. They are related by prevailing analytical method and generality of problems, since they fulfill the propaedeutic function. Composite sciences are metaphysics, ethics, philosophy of law and aesthetics; they use predominantly synthetic approach. Finally, the third group includes philosophy of religion, philosophy of history and similar studies, in which analysis complements synthesis and vice versa. The exposition of individual philosophical sciences should be preceded by a general introduction to philosophy.

Kudryavtsev-Platonov’s doctrine of ‘transcendent monism’ has become a manifestation of the religious-philosophical vision of the ontological structure of the world: Ens Supremum (The Supreme Being), Absolute Being as the uniting principle reconciling spirit and matter and providing unity of the world, rises above the world.

Kudryavtsev-Platonov’s doctrine suggested there is an impact of the idea of the Divine on our spirit. The direct knowledge of God is immediate in the sense that it is not obtained through the activities of the understanding. At the same time, it could not be an adequate, complete and accurate expression of the Divine, because it is conditioned by the peculiarities of our perception of the supersensible. In other words, the uniqueness of the inner sense or mind makes the knowledge of God always and only relative, whereas the first source of the ideas of the Divine is its action on our spirit; another element necessary for the knowledge of the Divine is thinking. The significance of divine revelation for knowledge required clarification, since from the position of transcendental monism the nature of the Creator is inherently different from ours and therefore could not be disclosed to man as it is in itself. To solve the difficulty, Kudryavtsev-Platonov relies on his epistemological concept, which assumes that, in addition to empirical and rational knowledge, there is also an ideality that includes direct contemplation of the Divine. The ideality becomes possible precisely through the participation of mind, a special mental activity that is not reducible to discursive reason.

However, God and the Divine is not only an object of knowledge for the mind, but the goal of the living aspiration of the human spirit, writes Kudryavtsev Platonov. According to him, the requirement of need for human self-improvement should be transferred to the task to improve the human being itself freely. He should make his own choice and be responsible for it. The purpose of earthly life referring to the elucidation of the main existential problem is the gradual formation of our mental individuality. However, the more advanced the latter is, the more obvious it becomes that the purpose of the soul is unattainable within the limits of bodily existence. At the same time, the idea of rationality, crystallizing in man, has the power of the imperative, it necessarily leads to the satisfaction that this goal is real. Thus, denying the immortality of the soul would lead to denying the purpose of human existence.

I conclude that in Viktor Kudryavtsev-Platonov’s transcendental monism the characteristic features of Russian philosophy revealed: both of them set themselves the task of not only comprehending life, but also enlightening it, not only discovery of truth, but the eminence of man and the strengthening of his spirit. Kudryavtsev-Platonov’s teachings give an idea of the solidity of philosophical thinking, cultivated in the walls of the Moscow Theological Academy. It has developed a tradition. Without that the picture of intellectual life in Russia could not be complete. The philosophical school of the Academy attracted the seeking people (including, for example, young Vladimir Solovyov who listened to Kudryavtsev-Platonov’s lectures). Both Kudryavtsev-Platonov’s transcendental monism and philosophy of Moscow Ecclesiastical Academy, and, in an extended sense, all Russian philosophy is the response for the question of how ‘philosophia perennis’ (perennial philosophy) is possible. From this point of view, in Kudryavtsev-Platonov’s philosophical doctrine, the main achievements of philosophical school of the Moscow Ecclesiastical Academy expressed most fully.

Keywords: Russian philosophy; philosophical school of Moscow Ecclesiastical Academy; theism; metaphysics; ontology; epistemology; soul; transcendental monism.

Cite MLA 7:

Kornilov, S. V. "Philosophical School of the Moscow Ecclesiastical Academy: Viktor Kudryavtsev-Platonov." Electronic Scientific Edition Almanac Space and Time 16.1—2 (2018). Web. <2227-9490e-aprovr_e-ast16-1_2.2018.61>. DOI 10.24411/2227-9490-2018-11061. (In Russian).

Список литературы / References