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ЭЛЕКТРОННОЕ НАУЧНОЕ ИЗДАНИЕ
АЛЬМАНАХ ПРОСТРАНСТВО И ВРЕМЯ
[Elektronnoe nauchnoe izdanie Al'manakh Prostranstvo i Vremya]

Electronic Scientific Edition
Almanac Space and Time
[e-Almanac Space and Time]

Часть издательского проекта “Пространство и Время” 
The part of the "Space and Time" Рublishing Рroject
 
 АЛЬМАНАХ В СОЦИАЛЬНЫХ СЕТЯХ 

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УСПЕХИ МОЛОДЫХ ИССЛЕДОВАТЕЛЕЙ:
МОЛОДЁЖНЫЙ ПРОЕКТ ДЛЯ ТЕХ, КТО ДЕЛАЕТ ПЕРВЫЕ ШАГИ В НАУКЕ

ПРЕСС-РЕЛИЗ совместного проектаФилософского факультета МГУ имени М.В. Ломоносова,Московского общества испытателей природы при МГУ имени М.В. Ломоносова,Федерального государственного бюджетного научного учреждения«Институт стратегии развития образования Российской академии образования»и «Электронного научного издания Альманах Пространство и Время»в рамках подготовки и проведенияXIX Всемирного фестиваля молодежи и студентов в РоссииФедерального государственного бюджетного научного учреждения  «Институт стратегии развития образования Российской академии образования», Российского университета дружбы народов, Московского общества испытателей природы при МГУ имени М.В. Ломоносова и «Электронного научного издания Альманах Пространство и Время»  в рамках подготовки и проведения  XIX Всемирного фестиваля молодежи и студентов в России
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ПРОСТРАНСТВО ПРОСТРАНСТВ / SPACE OF THE SPACES / RAUM DER RÄUME

»   2018. Том 16. Выпуск 1-2

DOI 10.24411/2227-9490-2018-11043

Калашников И.А. 
Вальдорфская школа: к осмыслению педагогических идей и опыта

Калашников Иван Андреевич, кандидат исторических наук, доцент, Одинцовский филиал Московского государственного института международных отношений (Университета) МИД России (МГИМО-Университета МИД РФ)
ORCID IDhttps://orcid.org/0000-0002-6303-3438
E-mail: ivan-a-kalashnikov@j-spacetime.com, ia_kalashnikov@inbox.ru

В статье на основе отечественных и зарубежных публикаций дан общий концептуальный очерк основных идей и опыта вальдорфской педагогики, в том числе и в свете параллелей с отечественной педагогической мыслью. Обсуждаются отдельные отличительные особенности вальдорфской педагогики как системы, ориентированной на сбалансированное сочетание гуманитарного и естественнонаучного образования, с одной стороны, и гармоничное творческое развитие личности ребенка, с другой.

Ключевые слова: вальдорфская школа; преподавание «эпохами»; организация и структура урока; ритмика; эвритмия; горизонтальный и вертикальный учебные планы; творческая свобода педагога и ученика; педагогическая антропология; «философия жизни».

Цитирование по ГОСТ Р 7.0.11—2011:

Калашников, И. А. Вальдорфская школа: к осмыслению педагогических идей и опыта [Электронный ресурс] / И.А. Калашников // Электронное научное издание Альманах Пространство и Время. — 2018. — Т. 16. — Вып. 1—2. — Стационарный сетевой адрес: 2227-9490e-aprovr_e-ast16-1_2.2018.43. DOI 10.24411/2227-9490-2018-11043.




DOI 10.24411/2227-9490-2018-11043

Kalashnikov I.A. Waldorf School: Towards Understanding Pedagogical Ideas and Experience

Ivan A. Kalashnikov, Ph.D. (History), M.M.A.S., M.Ed., LL.M., Associate Professor, Odintsovo branch of Moscow State Institute of International Relations (MGIMO University) of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Russia
ORCID IDhttps://orcid.org/0000-0002-6303-3438
E-mail: ivan-a-kalashnikov@j-spacetime.com, ia_kalashnikov@inbox.ru

Crisis of modern Russian school, legacy of the totalitarian approach to teachers and parents relations to the pupil, losing humanistic principles of pedagogical practice, disrespect for the pupil's personality and didactic problems in the rapid and continuous changes in the scientific and humanitarian picture of the world make it urgent to look into alternative pedagogical systems.

The subject matter of my paper is main set of ideas (‘philosophy’ and ‘ideology’) and experience (curricula and pedagogical practice) of modern Waldorf pedagogical system and Waldorf School. I consider these issues using problem, textual, content and contrastive analysis: as a problematization of pedagogical approaches from Waldorf curricula for primary, medium and high school according to primary and secondary sources (from Rudolf Steiner’s pedagogical writings to websites of active Waldorf schools in Russia and abroad and internet-forums of Waldorf alumni) and as compared to Russian human pedagogical ideas and practices of Vasily Sukhomlinsky and Anton Makarenko.

Thus, I consider ‘horizontal’ and ‘vertical’ Waldorf curricula as a vivid implementation of main ideas of Waldorf pedagogy that are the primacy of all-round harmonious development of child's personality, formation of his ability and desire to learn and to perceive organically the world around him, including the living nature as friendly environment, but not only as a faceless object for technical impact and profit source.

Waldorf education emphasizes a respect for nature of both in its proper sense and human one. Thus, Waldorf philosophy is based upon the beliefs that (i) children learn different things best at certain stages of development when their spirituality, intellect and physical capabilities are in tune with the information presented to them; (ii) rhythmic movement has not only aesthetic, but also pedagogical significance and contributes to the development of the graph-motor skill necessary for mastering writing and memorizing; (iii) in school years, a person needs to get not only theoretical but also applied knowledge, and the second ones help the better assimilation of the first, and also contribute to social adaptation of the child. All three of these provisions, originally based only on Steiner's anthroposophy, are now supported by modern data from speech therapy, neuro- and psychophysiology, and age psychology. So, in my article, I examine in detail Waldorf curricula in terms of reflecting these basic ideas in them.

I show that in such key positions as reliance on intuitive comprehension of the world, the development of child's aesthetic sense and feeling of living nature, as well as formation of his volitional qualities, Waldorf pedagogy is practical embodiment of not Steiner's anthroposophic ideas, but the German ‘Philosophy of Life’ (Lebensphilosophie) as intellectual mainstream of the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries. From Steiner’s philosophical views, Waldorf pedagogy has borrowed as a basic principle their conceptual difference from Kant's philosophy, which is the understanding of all three types of reason (pure, practical and aesthetic ones) as closely interrelated and interdependent rather than separate phenomena.

In Russia, the problems of the Waldorf School are connected, firstly, with the distrust of the parents of future pupils, since the Orthodox Church and some secular researchers are categorically against the Waldorf system, which they consider sectarian. Secondly, the legacy of the totalitarian type of education is hampered by the trust in this system, as parents believe that proper education requires strict discipline based on violence against the child. These same parents and part of the ‘near-school’ community are trying to convince public opinion that the students of the Waldorf schools are worse at absorbing the program than the pupils of ordinary public ones and do not enter prestigious universities after school. These rumors, as well as rumors that the Waldorf School is relevant only for mentally retarded children and children with disabilities, are distributed in the Russian segment of the Internet. Third, significant problem of the Waldorf School in Russia is the small number of highly professional erudite and friendly school teachers. Since the 1970s, not those school leavers who really love and respect children and want to develop their abilities have come to the pedagogical institutes. Graduates enter pedagogical universities today mainly on the basis of the residual principle (since they are not able to enter any other higher educational institution) and in the expectation of teachers’ long vacation in Russia. Moreover, although the Waldorf charter does not permit propaganda of anthroposophy as an esoteric teaching, the crisis of ideology in Russia caused a number of genuine adherents of the occultism to appear in the leadership and pedagogical collectives of some Russian Waldorf schools.

Despite these circumstances, based on an analysis of the content of pedagogical ideas and experience of Waldorf schools both in Russia and in the world, I conclude that basic ideas of the Waldorf school (respect for the child, the specificity of the pedagogical approach to the account of his age characteristics, school self-government, the study of living nature and communication with it for didactic purposes) are organic to the best ideas of the Russian 20th-century pedagogy (Sukhomlinsky and Makarenko ). Thanks to these ideas and their practical implementation, Waldorf School is effective tool for the humanization of pedagogy, society and culture in general: precisely as the practical embodiment of the most viable provisions of the ‘Philosophy of Life’, Waldorf pedagogy is able to resist both technocratic trends and anti-humanist total postmodernist deconstruction.

Keywords: Waldorf School; learning in epochs; lesson arrangement and structure; rhythm; eurhythmy; ‘horizontal’ and ‘vertical’ curricula; creative freedom of the teacher and student; pedagogical anthropology; ‘Philosophy of Life’ (Lebensphilosophie).

Cite MLA 7:

Kalashnikov, I. A. " Waldorf School: Towards Understanding Pedagogical Ideas and Experience." Electronic Scientific Edition Almanac Space and Time 16.1—2 (2017). Web. <2227-9490e-aprovr_e-ast16-1_2.2018.41>. DOI 10.24411/2227-9490-2018-11043. (In Russian).

Список литературы / References