ISSN 2227-9490
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Издается при поддержке Научного совета РАН по изучению и охране культурного и природного наследия,
Проблемной комиссии РАН "Хронобиология и хрономедицина" и Российского философского общества

Powered by Scientific Council for Study and Protection of Cultural and Natural Heritage,
Problem Commission ‘ Chronobiology and Chronomedicine’, Russian Academy of Sciences, and Russian Philosophical Society

ЭЛЕКТРОННОЕ НАУЧНОЕ ИЗДАНИЕ
АЛЬМАНАХ ПРОСТРАНСТВО И ВРЕМЯ
[Elektronnoe nauchnoe izdanie Al'manakh Prostranstvo i Vremya]

Electronic Scientific Edition
Almanac Space and Time
[e-Almanac Space and Time]

Часть издательского проекта “Пространство и Время” 
The part of the "Space and Time" Рublishing Рroject
 
 АЛЬМАНАХ В СОЦИАЛЬНЫХ СЕТЯХ 

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УСПЕХИ МОЛОДЫХ ИССЛЕДОВАТЕЛЕЙ:
МОЛОДЁЖНЫЙ ПРОЕКТ ДЛЯ ТЕХ, КТО ДЕЛАЕТ ПЕРВЫЕ ШАГИ В НАУКЕ

ПРЕСС-РЕЛИЗ совместного проектаФилософского факультета МГУ имени М.В. Ломоносова,Московского общества испытателей природы при МГУ имени М.В. Ломоносова,Федерального государственного бюджетного научного учреждения«Институт стратегии развития образования Российской академии образования»и «Электронного научного издания Альманах Пространство и Время»в рамках подготовки и проведенияXIX Всемирного фестиваля молодежи и студентов в РоссииФедерального государственного бюджетного научного учреждения  «Институт стратегии развития образования Российской академии образования», Российского университета дружбы народов, Московского общества испытателей природы при МГУ имени М.В. Ломоносова и «Электронного научного издания Альманах Пространство и Время»  в рамках подготовки и проведения  XIX Всемирного фестиваля молодежи и студентов в России
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ПРОСТРАНСТВО ПРОСТРАНСТВ / SPACE OF THE SPACES / RAUM DER RÄUME

»   2018. Том 16. Выпуск 1-2

DOI 10.24411/2227-9490-2018-11042

 Гушель Р.З. 
Из истории становления мужской средней школы в России в 30-е—70-е гг. XIX в.

 Гушель Ревекка Залмановна  (1950—2017), научный сотрудник отдела истории математики и математического образования, Научно-практический центр «Математическое просвещение», Москва

Работа посвящена истории становления мужской средней школы в России. 30-е—70-е гг. XIX в. — период появления и развития наряду с классическими реальных средних учебных заведений. В статье описана борьба между сторонниками «классического» и «реального» направлений в среднем образовании и связанные с нею изменения в соотношении между различными циклами учебных предметов.

Ключевые слова: история школьного образования в России; гимназическое образование; Министерство народного образования; мужские реальные училища; уставы гимназий и реальных училищ; циклы учебных предметов.

Цитирование по ГОСТ Р 7.0.11—2011:

Гушель, Р. З. Из истории становления мужской средней школы в России в 30-е—70-е гг.XIX в. [Электронный ресурс] / Р.З. Гушель // Электронное научное издание Альманах Пространство и Время. — 2018. — Т. 16. — Вып. 1—2. — Стационарный сетевой адрес: 2227-9490e-aprovr_e-ast16-1_2.2018.42. DOI 10.24411/2227-9490-2018-11042.




DOI 10.24411/2227-9490-2018-11042

Gushel R.Z. Excerpts on the History of Boys’ Secondary School Formation in Russia in 1830s—1870s

Rebecca Z. Gushe (1950—2017), M.Ed., Researcher at Department of History of Mathematics and Mathematical Education, Scientific and Practical Centre “Mathematical Education”, Moscow

Period of 1830s—1870s is characterized by appearance and development of non-classical secondary schools (‘Realschulen’) along with classical ones. The history of school education In Russia is an indispensable part of it cultural life history, and experience of a broad democratic discussion on the matter of Russian education problems in the 19th c. could be not only interesting, but also useful for current school reforms: issues of correlation between classical (humanitarian) and natural-science education, forms and methods of knowledge deepening, and features of gymnasium education are relevant for both modern Russia and education sector of any state in transition. For these reasons, Editorial Board of the e-Almanac publishes the terminal work of Rebecca Gushel (1950—2017), a well-known Russian researcher of the history of education, kindly provided by her relatives.

The subject of this paper is history of boys’ high school institutionalization in Russia during 1830s—1870s. In her research, R. Gushel used problem and source analysis of wide range of pre-revolutionary publications (including little-known ones), official documents and statistical data that show acute confrontation between supporters of the classical (humanitarian, associated mainly with the teaching of classical and foreign languages, such as Greek, Latin, French and German) and non-classical (‘practical’, scientific) directions in secondary education and related changes in the balance in system of classical and non-classical courses.

As a result of the fact that the ministers of public education became one day opponents, another day supporters of classical education (teaching Greek and Latin), programs and course scheduling alternated, schools appeared with the teaching of both ancient languages (Greek and Latin) and only one ancient language (Latin).

Despite the opposition of the authorities and Minister of Education to the availability of secondary education for all estates of the Russian Empire, not just for children of nobility, by the beginning of the 1830s, first non-classical secondary schools (Realshulen) appeared due to initiative of private citizens. Initially, the aim of such schools was to spread only ‘technical knowledge, directly useful for the industrial activity,’ but then it was extended to general educational knowledge. In 1839, task to organize non-classical classes for ‘temporary teaching of technical sciences’ was set at the governmental level, but the original goal of their establishment was still ‘to distract children of the lower classes from gymnasium course learning.’ Teaching subjects in non-classical schools were practical chemistry, practical mechanics, drawing and engineering draughtsmanship. The Statute "On Non-classical Gymnasiums and Progymnasiums" (19 Nov. 1864) institutionalized seven-grade non-classical gymnasiums, whose goal was on a par with classical gymnasiums, ‘general education and preparation for entry higher specialized educational institutions (progymnasiums were general educational institutions in the Russian Empire with a program of four junior gymnasium classes; progymnasiums were established in 1864 for cities in which there were no gymnasiums).’ These educational institutions were accessible to children of all states and religions and had a program in many respects similar to classical gymnasiums and a completely identical administration. But upon entering higher special institutions, certificates of complete course of non-classical gymnasiums were only ‘taken into consideration’, but did not give the right to enter universities. In 1871, non-classical gymnasiums were renamed to non-classical schools, and the new statute, approved on May 15, 1872, declared their goal as ‘general education adapted to practical needs and acquiring technical knowledge,’ bearing in mind primarily the needs of trade and industry. The course lasted for six to seven years; in the senior classes applied disciplines (mechanics, chemistry, and also technological and commercial subjects) were taught. An essential feature of both classical and non-classical secondary education in Russian Empire was rote learning. On the one hand, now this approach is criticized as creating only an illusion of competence. On the other hand, this form of learning provided a stable basic knowledge for the entire life.

In her paper, R. Gushel concludes that thanks to a number of measures taken by Ministry of Public Education in the early 1870s, schools of both classical and non-classical types became popular in Russian society, although graduates of non-classical schools were still not admitted to universities. Number of both these schools and students in them grew rapidly, which was facilitated by the internal political situation in Russia. Thus, by the mid-1870s, system of boys’ secondary education in Russia was basically formed, and further reforms only strengthened it in accordance with the requirements of the time.

Keywords: history of school education in Russia; gymnasium education; boys' non-classical secondary school (Realschule); Ministry of Public Education; statutes of gymnasiums and non-classical secondary schools; system of classical and non-classical courses.

Cite MLA 7:

Gushel, R. Z. "Excerpts on the History of Boys’ Secondary School Formation in Russia in 1830s—1870s." Electronic Scientific Edition Almanac Space and Time 16.1/2 (2018). Web. <2227-9490e-aprovr_e-ast16-1_2.2018.42>. DOI 10.24411/2227-9490-2018-11042 (In Russian).


Список литературы / References